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文章导读 腦退化症︰ UCLA ON ALZHEIMERS (焕然推荐)



下面是美國加州大學 老年中心主任 G.Small 博士寫的文章。

UCLA ( University of California at Los Angeles ) ON ALZHEIMERS

Food for Thought, 思維的食品:

"The idea that Alzheimer's is entirely genetic and unpreventable is perhaps the Greatest misconception about the disease," says Gary Small, M.D., director of The UCLA Center on Aging. Researchers now know that Alzheimer's, like heart Disease and cancer, develops over decades and can be influenced by lifestyle Factors including cholesterol, blood pressure, obesity, depression, education,Nutrition, sleep and mental, physical and social activity.

洛杉磯加州大學老年中心主任Gray Small 博士說:「那種認為腦退化症 (譯注-阿兹海默氏症-過去亦稱老人痴呆症,按香港醫務衛生署建議改為腦退化症-下同) 完全來自遺傳的和不可預防的想法,是對這個病症的最大誤解。」研究人員現在已經明白,腦退化症就像心臟病和癌症,是經年累月發展起來的病症,是受生活方式因素所影響,這些因素包括膽固醇、血壓、肥胖、癌症、憂鬱、教育、營養、睡眠、腦力、體力和社交活動等等。

The big news: Mountains of research reveals that simple things you do every day might cut your odds of losing your mind to Alzheimer's.


In search of scientific ways to delay and outlive Alzheimer's and other Dementias, I tracked down thousands of studies and interviewed dozens of Experts. The results in a new book: 100 Simple Things You Can Do to Prevent Alzheimer's and Age-Related Memory Loss (Little, Brown; $19.99). Here are 10 strategies I found most surprising.


1. Have coffee: In an amazing flip-flop, coffee is the new brain tonic. A large European study showed that drinking three to five cups of coffee a day in Midlife cut Alzheimer's risk 65% in late life. University of South Florida Researcher Gary Arendash credits caffeine: He says it reduces dementia-causing amyloid in animal brains. Others credit coffee's antioxidants. So drink up, Arendash advises, unless your doctor says you shouldn't.

1. 喝咖啡: 咖啡得到平反,現在認為咖啡是一種新的補腦品。根據歐洲大量研究表明,中年時每日飲3-5杯咖啡,晚年時出現腦退化症的風險可以下降65%。美國南佛羅里達研究人員Gary Arendash 贊許咖啡,他說咖啡可以減少動物腦中的導致失憶的類澱粉含量。其他研究人員則因抗氧化劑的功用給咖啡加分。Arendash勸人多飲咖啡,除非你的醫生認為你不宜飲咖啡。

2. Floss: Oddly, the health of your teeth and gums can help predict dementia. University of Southern California research found that having periodontal disease before age 35 quadrupled the odds of dementia years later. Older people with tooth and gum disease score lower on memory and cognition tests, other studies show. Experts speculate that inflammation in diseased mouths migrates to the brain.

2. 牙線: 說來也怪,牙齒和牙齦的健康有助於預診癡呆症。南加州大學研究表明,35歲之前有牙周病的人,老年時患癡呆症的機會比沒有的人多四倍。其他研究亦有患牙齒及牙齦病患的長者在記憶力和認知能力測試上得分較低。專家們推測是由於口腔感染炎症向大腦遷移。

3. Google: Doing an online search can stimulate your aging brain even more than reading a book, says UCLA's Gary Small, who used brain MRIs to prove it. The biggest surprise: Novice Internet surfers, ages 55 to 78, activated key memory and learning centers in the brain after only a week of Web surfing for an hour a day.

3. 谷歌 (譯註- 上網) 加州大學的 Gary Small用核磁共振證實,上網搜索比閱讀書本更能刺激長者的大腦。最令人驚訝的是:55-78歲的新手,只要一個星期每日上網一小時,便能活化大腦的主記憶和學習中心。

4. Grow new brain cells: Impossible, scientists used to say. Now it's believed that thousands of brain cells are born daily. The trick is to keep the newborns Alive.. What works: aerobic exercise (such as a brisk 30-minute walk every day), strenuous mental activity, eating salmon and other fatty fish, and avoiding obesity, chronic stress, sleep deprivation, heavy drinking and vitamin B deficiency.

4. 新生大腦細胞: 以前科學家們老是說大腦不可能產生新的細胞。現在卻認為大腦每日產生萬千個新細胞,關鍵是怎樣使這些新細胞存活。方法是:帶氧運動(例如每日急散步30分鐘),緊張的腦力活動,進食沙文魚和其他含脂肪高的魚,避免過胖、慢性應激、剝奪睡眠、酗酒和維生素B缺乏。

5. Drink apple juice: Apple juice can push production of the "memory chemical" acetylcholine; that's the way the popular Alzheimer's drug Aricept works, says Thomas Shea, Ph.D., of the University of Massachusetts . He was surprised that old mice given apple juice did better on learning and memory tests than mice that received water. A dose for humans: 16 ounces, or two to three apples a day. (Important apples are heavily sprayed so go for the organic juice)

5. 飲蘋果汁: 麻薩諸薩斯大學的Thomas Shea博士這樣說,蘋果汁可以促進「記憶化學物」乙酰膽碱的產生。這也就是治療腦退化症常用藥 Aricept 的作用機理。他用蘋果汁飼餵的老齡老鼠比用水飼養的老鼠,在學習和記憶試驗中表現得比較優勝。人類的服食劑量:16安士或每日2-3個蘋果。(注意 蘋果通常噴大量農藥,飲有機果汁較佳)

6. Protect your head: Blows to the head, even mild ones early in life, increase odds of dementia years later. Pro football players have 19 times the typical rate of memory-related diseases. Alzheimer's is four times more common in elderly who suffer a head injury, Columbia University finds. Accidental falls doubled an older person's odds of dementia five years later in another study. Wear seat belts and helmets, fall-proof your house, and don't take risks.

6. 保護頭顱: 若頭顱受到撞擊,那怕是年輕時期的輕度撞擊,也會使晚年時癡呆症增加。職業美式足球運動員發生與記憶有關的疾病比常人高19倍。哥倫比亞大學發現,年輕時頭部受傷的人得腦退化症的機會是常人的4倍。另一項研究表明意外跌倒受傷,五年後發生痴呆症的機會增加2倍。配戴安全帶,戴頭盔,家中防滑,不要冒險。

7. Meditate: Brain scans show that people who meditate regularly have less cognitive decline and brain shrinkage - a classic sign of Alzheimer's - as they age. Andrew Newberg of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine says yoga meditation of 12 minutes a day for two months improved blood flow and cognitive functioning in seniors with memory problems.

7. 冥思: 腦部掃描顯示,經常沉思默想的人,在年齡日長時,腦退化症的典型症狀--認知衰退和腦萎縮比較少。賓夕凡尼亞醫學院的Andrew Newberg 說,記憶力有問題的的長者,若每日作12分鐘的瑜伽冥想,實踐兩個月,便可改進血液流通和思考功能。

8. Take vit D: A "severe deficiency" of vitamin D boosts older Americans' risk of Cognitive impairment 394%, an alarming study by England 's University of Exeter finds. And most Americans lack vitamin D. Experts recommend a daily dose of 800 IU to 2,000 IU of vitamin D3.

8. 服食維他命 D: 英國埃克塞特大學的研究驚人地發現,由於嚴重缺乏維他命D,美國的長者的認知障礙症急升394%。專家建議 每日服食維他命 D3,800-2000 國際單位。

9. Fill your brain. It's called "cognitive reserve." A rich accumulation of life experiences - education, marriage, socializing, a stimulating job, language skills, having a purpose in life, physical activity and mentally demanding leisure activities - makes your brain better able to tolerate plaques and tangles. You can even have significant Alzheimer's pathology and no symptoms of dementia if you have high cognitive reserve, says David Bennett, M.D., of Chicago 's Rush University Medical Center .

9. 充實大腦: 即所謂 "認知儲備"。生活經驗的累積 -- 教育、婚姻、社交、具刺激性的工作、語言技巧、生活有目標、要動腦的休閑活動 -- 都可以令大腦較好地忍受色斑和緾結 (譯註--色斑 plagues 通常指 amyloid plaques 澱粉質色斑,是在腦退化症患者的大腦所發現的結構異常特征。tangles 是指 neurofibrillary tangles 是腦退化症患者大腦神經原纖維混亂狀態。這兩者都是腦退化症患者死後屍剖的診斷依據)。芝加哥魯殊大學醫學中心的 David Bennet博士認為,如果有丰富的認知儲備,一個人可以有明顯的腦退化症的病理學病徵,但沒有痴呆的病狀。

10. Avoid infection: Astonishing new evidence ties Alzheimer's to cold sores, gastric ulcers, Lyme disease, pneumonia and the flu., Ruth Itzhaki Ph.D., of the University of Manchester in England estimates the cold-sore herpes simplex virus is incriminated in 60% of Alzheimer's cases. The theory: Infections trigger excessive beta amyloid "gunk" that kills brain cells. Proof is still lacking, but why not avoid common infections and take appropriate vaccines, antibiotics and antiviral agents?

10. 預防感染: 英國曼徹斯特大學 Ruth Itzhaki博士新近的證據令人驚訝地證明疱疹,胃潰瘍,萊姆病 (譯注 - 一種由蜱傳播的全身疾病),肺炎,流感都與腦退化症有密切關系。按他的估計60%腦退化症的元凶是單純疱疹病毒。理論是:感染激發產生多餘的澱粉樣蛋白"糊"從而殺死腦細胞。雖然證據尚未充足,但是為甚麼不注射適合的疫苗、服抗生素、抗病毒藥物來避免感染呢?

What to Drink for Good Memory A great way to keep your aging memory sharp and avoid Alzheimer's is to drink the right stuff.

喝甚麼來改善記憶 飲正確的飲料是保持你的記憶力和避免得腦退化症的好方法。

a. Tops: Juice. A glass of any fruit or vegetable juice three times a week slashed Alzheimer's odds 76% in Vanderbilt University research. Especially protective: blueberry, grape and apple juice, say other studies.

a. 上選:果菜汁 細西州范德堡大學研究結果,一個星期飲三次,每次一杯任何的水果蔬菜汁可以減少76%的腦退化症。特別有效的是果汁是:藍莓、葡萄、蘋果汁。

b. Tea: Only a cup of black or green tea a week cut rates of cognitive decline in older people by 37%, reports the Alzheimer's Association. Only brewed tea works. Skip bottled tea, which is devoid of antioxidants.

b. 茶: 據阿兹海默症協會報告,對長者而言,每星期一杯紅茶或綠茶就可以把認知衰退減少37%。但只有泡茶才有效,不要飲罐裝茶,罐裝茶沒有抗氧化劑。

c. Caffeine beverages: Surprisingly, caffeine fights memory loss and Alzheimer's, suggest dozens of studies. Best sources: coffee (one Alzheimer's researcher drinks five cups a day), tea and chocolate. Beware caffeine if you are pregnant, have high blood pressure, insomnia or anxiety.

c. 含咖啡因飲料 沒想到,有數十個研究證實咖啡因可以對抗記憶衰退和腦退化症。最佳選擇:咖啡(一名腦退化症研究者一天飲五杯咖啡),茶、巧格力。但咖啡因對孕婦、高血壓患者、失眠症患者、焦躁症患者不宜。

d. Red wine: If you drink alcohol, a little red wine is most apt to benefit your aging brain. It's high in antioxidants. Limit it to one daily glass for women, two for men. Excessive alcohol, notably binge drinking, brings on Alzheimer's.

d. 紅酒 飲小量紅酒對日漸老化的大腦有好處。紅酒含大量抗氧化物。婦女一天不可超過一普通玻璃杯,男士兩杯。(譯注 - 我對這一段有懷疑,daily glass 通常是指家庭常用水杯,標准是8安士或250毫升,亦有以500毫升作一杯,一天飲兩杯紅酒是不是太多了罷)過量的酒精,豪飲均可招致腦退化症。

e. Two to avoid: Sugary soft drinks, especially those sweetened with high fructose corn syrup. They make lab animals dumb. Water with high copper content also can up your odds of Alzheimer's. Use a water filter that removes excess minerals.

e. 有兩種飲品不可以飲:含糖高的飲料,特別是果糖含量高的玉米糖漿。它使試驗動物反應遲鈍。含銅高的水,也可以使患老人痴呆症機會升高。應當使用可以除去多餘礦物質的濾水器。

5. Ways to Save Your Kids from Alzheimer's. Now Alzheimer's isn't just a disease that starts in old age. What happens to your child's brain seems to have a dramatic impact on his or her likelihood of Alzheimer's many decades later.

5. 不讓你們的孩子患上腦退化症的方法。腦退化症不是年紀長大後才會發生。現在對孩子大腦所發生的事情對他們數十年後發生腦退化症有着極大影響。

Here are five things you can do now to help save your child from Alzheimer's and memory loss later in life, according to the latest research.


1. Prevent head blows: Insist your child wear a helmet during biking, skating, skiing, baseball, football, hockey, and all contact sports. A major blow as well as tiny repetitive unnoticed concussions can cause damage, leading to memory loss and Alzheimer's years later.

1. 預防頭顱受撞擊: 堅持要孩子在騎單車、溜冰、打籃球、足球、曲棍球、其他有肢體接觸的運動時一定要戴頭盔。嚴重的撞擊和雖然不顯眼、但重複的腦震蕩都會做成傷害,日後會出現腦退化症和記憶缺失。

2. Encourage language skills: A teenage girl who is a superior writer is eight times more likely to escape Alzheimer's in late life than a teen with poor linguistic skills. Teaching young children to be fluent in two or more languages makes them less vulnerable to Alzheimer's.

2. 鼓勵學習語言技巧: 一個有高超寫作能力十來歲女孩,能逃過腦退化症的機會是8倍於一個文字語言技巧差的少年。教孩子流利地掌握兩三種語言,可讓他們不易受腦退化症攻擊。

3. Insist your child go to college: Education is a powerful Alzheimer's deterrent. The more years of formal schooling, the lower the odds. Most Alzheimer's prone: teenage drop outs. For each year of education, your risk of dementia drops 11%, says a recent University of Cambridge study.

3. 一定要孩子上大學: 教育是防止腦退化症的強力武器。在學校越讀多幾年書,發病機會就越低。多數的腦退化症患者,都是年青時期輟學。劍橋大學近年的研究,多讀一年書,腦退化症發病機會下降 11%!

4. Provide stimulation: Keep your child's brain busy with physical, mental and social activities and novel experiences. All these contribute to a bigger, better functioning brain with more so-called 'cognitive reserve.' High cognitive reserve protects against memory decline and Alzheimer's.

4. 提供刺激: 用體力、腦力、社交活動和新奇的經歷使孩子的大腦忙碌起來。所有這些都有利於建立更大更好、更多的 "認知儲備"。高認知儲備可預妨記憶衰退和腦退化症。

5. Spare the junk food: Lab animals raised on berries, spinach and high omega-3 fish have great memories in old age. Those overfed sugar, especially high fructose in soft drinks, saturated fat and trans fats become overweight and diabetic, with smaller brains and impaired memories as they age, a prelude to Alzheimer's.

5. 拚棄垃圾食品: 用漿果類、菠菜、和奧米加3含量高的魚類飼養的試驗動物,在老年時仍保有很好的記憶力。而用含糖高,尤其是含高果糖的飲料,飽和脂肪及反式脂肪體積較細和記憶力受損,這些都是腦退化症的前奏。



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